HANKE-Aviation GmbH - Flight Crew Training
CHAPTER 10: ATS SURVEILLANCE SERVICES IN MNPS AIRSPACE
10.1.1 ATS Surveillance services (radar and ADS-B) are provided within the MNPS airspace, where radar- and/or ADS-B coverage exists, in the Bodø, Reykjavik, Gander, Santa Maria, Shanwick, and New York oceanic areas.
10.1.2 The ATS Surveillance services are provided in accordance with the ATS Surveillance services procedures in the PANS ATM (DOC 4444).
10.2 OPERATION OF SSR TRANSPONDERS
10.2.1 All aircraft operating as IFR flights in the NAT Region shall be equipped with a pressure- altitude reporting SSR transponder. Radar control services are provided in particular portions of the NAT Region (e.g. the southern and eastern portions of Reykjavik OCA). Here, transponder codes issued by the controlling authority must be retained until advised. Otherwise, unless directed by ATC, pilots flying in the NAT FIRs will operate transponders continuously in Mode A/C Code 2000, except that the last assigned code will be retained for a period of 30 min after entry into NAT airspace or after leaving a radar service area. Pilots should recognize that it is important to change from the last assigned domestic code to the Mode A/C Code 2000 since the original domestic code may not be recognized by the subsequent Domestic Radar Service on exit from the oceanic airspace. It should be noted that this procedure does not affect the use of the special purpose codes (7500, 7600 and 7700) in cases of unlawful interference, radio failure or emergency. However, given the current heightened security environment crews must exercise CAUTION when selecting Codes not to inadvertently cycle through any of these special purpose codes and thereby possibly initiate the launching of an interception.
10.2.2 Reykjavik ACC provides a radar control service in the south-eastern part of its area and consequently transponder codes issued by Reykjavik ACC must be retained throughout the Reykjavik OCA until advised by ATC.
10.3 OPERATION OF ADS-B TRANSMITTERS
10.3.1 ADS-B services are already available in some continental airspaces immediately adjacent to the NAT Region and are soon to be provided within some portions of the NAT MNPS Airspace, specifically in the Gander and Reykjavik OCAs.
10.3.2 Eligibility for ADS-B service in the Gander Oceanic CTA is based upon the compliance considerations of European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) AMC 20-24 or equivalent. Aircraft avionics functionally should be compliant with DO 260, DO 260A, or DO 260B and operators must also meet the conditions of operational specification No. 609 or 610, as appropriate, outlined in Transport Canada Advisory Circular 700-009. 4. An Operator/Aircraft ADS-B Eligibility List will be established and those wishing to benefit from this service must ensure their entry onto this list. It is expected that common requirements and a single eligibility list will be established for ADS-B service participation throughout the NAT Region. However, until such information is promulgated, operators should consult the detail of the relevant AIS issued by each ADS-B service providing State.
10.3.3 The Flight ID is the Aircraft Identification (ACID) and is used in both ADS-B and Mode S SSR technology. Up to seven characters long, it is usually set by the flight crew via a cockpit interface. The Flight ID is used by the ATC ground system to correlate the ADS-B information with the flight plan data and to identify the aircraft on the ATC situation display system. To allow correlation of a Flight ID to a flight plan,
The Flight ID must exactly match the ACID entered in Item 7 of the ICAO flight plan. It is important that the Flight ID is correctly entered or ADS-B service may be denied.
Note: The way in which ADS-B avionics are integrated into the cockpit may prevent changing of Flight ID once airborne. Some avionics packages may be wired to a weight-on-wheels switch that detects when the aircraft is airborne so that the Flight ID field is not editable after take –off.
10.3.4 Most ADS-B transmitters (DO-260 compliant ADS-B transmitters) incorporate a single emergency bit for the squawk codes 7500, 7600 and 7700 and therefore do not indicate the nature of the emergency. Thus when activated, the pilot will need to contact ATC to communicate the type of emergency. Such ADS-B transmitters are also unable to squawk ident while the general emergency mode is being transmitted.
10.4 NORTH ATLANTIC DATA LINK MANDATE AIRSPACE
10.4.1 In each of the phases of the NAT Data Link Mandate implementation plan, areas/level bands are defined, within which, to plan and/or fly, the aircraft must be equipped with FANS 1/A (or equivalent) CPDLC and ADS-C. However, where ATS surveillance service is provided using either SSR or ADS-B, appropriately equipped aircraft (i.e. with Mode A/C transponders or with DO-260 compliant ADS-B transmitters, respectively), may be exempt from the DLM requirement for FANS 1/A equippage. Two charts, shown in Attachment 9 to this document, give a general indication of the Radar and ADS-B coverage in the NAT Region. However, when planning a NAT flight and intending to perhaps benefit from the terms of any DLM exemption, Operators must consult the current AIS of all the relevant NAT ANSP States.